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A Brief Introduction of
Distinctive Features of Nepalese Buddhism

  1. Introduction:
    In his article the Nepalese Buddhism exclusively means by the Bajracharya Tradition. Because of the distinctive feature of Nepalese Buddhism made it popular outside Nepal. People from other parts of the world are getting attracted to Kathmandu valley and it is being develop as the pilgrimage centre of Bajracharya Buddhism. There is no doubt that Lumbini is the birthplace of Lord Buddha. The followers of Nepalese Buddhism believe on as well as five Tathgatas: Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, Bairochana and Amoghasiddhi. They are well known in ritual aspect of Buddhism some of the features are traced in this article.

  2. Tathagata Buddhas and Buddhist practices:
    The Tathagata Buddhas are abstract aspect of buddhahood. It obviously means Emanated form of Adibuddha as Buddhas in meditation. They are being a part of Jina, which symbolizes the conquest of material self. Thus, their sangha is known as Jina sangha.

    These Tathagata Buddhas are shown in the seated form and also the part of the psychocosmological system which is developed by the Bajrayana tradition popularly known as Buddhism of Nepal. The fact that each Dhyani Buddhas Symbolises a negative element of our mental make-up. It reflects among other things, basic Bajrayana belief in unity of opposites on the basis of the principle that the awareness of an evil tendency is tantamount to its transformation into a positive unit.

    The Adhibuddhas symbolize the reality in the following features:-
    1. Nepalese Buddhists realized that the Buddha is the teachings as Dharma includingNava sutras 3 and other Mahayana Sutras along with Tantra and others Buddhist Scriptures.
    2. Jina-Sangha as a Sangha of tathagata Boddisatva & sangha members as household monks. They are the Disciples of sangha and they are Shakya and Bajracharyas.
    3. Nepalese Buddhism is led by Bajracharyas having Bajravishekha initiation.
    4. During Prabrajya Sambar (Buddhist ordination) The new member of Jina Sangha used to wear red colour robes.
    5. Nepalese Buddhists respect eldest members of Bahal as a Chakresvar and eldest among all Chakresvaras as the Mul chakresvar (Dethayepa).
    6. Nepalese Buddhism clearly defines hierrarchies such as Vajracharyas (as the Priest). Shakyas (as the Co-leader, next to the priest) and other followers.
    7. There is need to be a holy monk (leaving house) to go through the paramarth Satya and the enlightenment.
    8. The main characteristic features are to practice Kriya, Charya, Yoga and Boddhisatva charyas.
    9. The house hold monks are holding De Acharya Guthi, Puin Acharya Guthi, Vihar Pujas4 and other similar ritual annually as national to the local level councils.
    10. Nepalese Buddhist practice Yoga, Charya, Kriya, Dhyan within their own Vahal as being the house hold monks as mentioned bellow:-
       a) Kriya Tantras are practiced as Samskar on the hasis of Vasudharnama & Panchrakchya Dharani.
       b) Charya Tantra is practiced with on the basis of Maha vairocan Tantra.
       c) Yoga Tantra is practiced with Yogavyash on the basis of Tatwa Sangraha and Sarba Parisodhan Tantra.
       d) Yoganuttara tantra is practiced in the basis of Chakra Sambar Tantra, Hey Bajra Tantra, Chatuspithtantra, Kalchakra Tantra and the Namasangitte etc.
    Nepalese Buddhists believe the Bajrayana tradition, leads to the path of transformation on advance bodhisattva principles, the doctrine of great bliss and emptiness to taught to attain the state of Buddahood.

  3. Origination of Nepalese Buddhism:
    So far as the evidence is concerned there are historical evedence to support origin of Nepalese Buddhism and traced history accurately. Following points support historical aspect of Nepalese Buddhism:-
    1. As inscribed in Gokarna Abhilekha by the king srayenseverma " ……Vajrayana" ".......Buddhivi", .....Bhu Chaitya Bhatta......" " Grihalankal ko Bhoot" it proves that the existence of Bjrayana in earlier Lichhavi period which is also supported by mentioning Bajrabhairab in Gorkha inscription dated saka Sambat 122.
    2. The discovery made of Avalokitesvar image of Lumbini in 1935 A.D shows that Bajrayana philosophy developed during the first century AD.
    3. According to the Rakta Varna Charya composed by Bakvajra (550 AD), Hevajra Tantra composed by padma Vajra (693 AD) and other unpublished charya manuscripts proves that Tantrik Vajrayana was highly developed during the first century AD.
    4. Bal Chandra Sharma mentioned that the Hevajra Tankra composed by padma Vajra was the summary of original Hevajra Tantra composed by Manju Devacharya. This period is Buddha's life.

  4. Varayana practices & Limitation of Tantra-Mantra:
    The practices of Highest Yoga Tantra is not permitted for everybody. It is said that the practice of Tantra-Mantra by those who, land prescribed qualification is said to be extremely dangerous. Only persons who are qualified could practice it because there are so many Tantras in different levels.

  5. Ritual feature of Nepalese Buddhism:
    The Nepalese Buddhists must perform prescribed ritual practices. Those practices are known as Dasakarma as rituals such as 1) Garbadhan 2) Punsavan 3) Simantonayena 4) TatKarma 5) Namakaran 6) Annaprasana 7) Chudakaran (Buddhist ordination) 8) Silpradan 9) Vratamochyan and 10) Panigrahan
    The rituals are not followed by the vajrayanis of India and Tibet. So it is specially of Nepali origin.

  6. Conclusion:
    Generally Nepalese Buddhism is confirmed within the Newar community, it survived. Fairly intact, preserving religious practices secret Mantra, Tantra, Yoga and ritual practices with Buddhist even maintained the language of Buddhist texts in original Buddhis sanskrit.
    Similarly, the teacher disciple relations is continued among the Buddhist oninterpted.
    Nepalese Buddhism established the authenticity of the sacred places such as Bahals and Bahils, which became the places of pilgrims not only for themselves but also important for other pilgrims the scholars of the world.

    Bahals and Bahilas tradition of Nepalese Buddhism is the community (Sangha) based lineage system, where as Tibetan lineage system is differ from it. Though Nepalese Buddhism (Vajrayana), in Newar context, became a closed system, no longer accessible to anyone outside the Vihara community for higher practices. Because of that, Nepalese Buddhism had not been properly spreading in the today's world with comparision to Tibetan & Chinese Buddhism. It is also happened because Nepalese Buddhism have not been brought up with such awareness of their own "Identity" nor it has yet been revealed their identity to the outside world by Nepalese Buddhist. Coming at the end, Nepalese Buddhist must be encouraged to give liveliness of Nepalese Buddhism must aware of rich experiences and practices of our religion and cultures along with distinctive feature. Then the scholars and pilgrims of the world ran away to Kathmandu Valley in highly no boast up the motion for the flourishment of Nepalese Buddhism in the world.

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